v2.0: Free RDS PG Alternative

Compatibility, Security and maintainability overhaul, a truly RDS PG alternative.


“PIGSTY” is now the abbr of “PostgreSQL in Great STYle”

or “PostgreSQL & Infrastructure & Governance System allTogether for You”.

Get pigsty v2.0.0 release via the following command:

curl -fsSL http://download.pigsty.cc/get) | bash
Download directly from GitHub Release
bash -c "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Vonng/pigsty/master/bin/get)"

# or download tarball directly with curl (EL9)
curl -L https://github.com/Vonng/pigsty/releases/download/v2.0.0/pigsty-v2.0.0.tgz -o ~/pigsty.tgz
curl -L https://github.com/Vonng/pigsty/releases/download/v2.0.0/pigsty-pkg-v2.0.0.el9.x86_64.tgz  -o /tmp/pkg.tgz
# EL7: https://github.com/Vonng/pigsty/releases/download/v2.0.0/pigsty-pkg-v2.0.0.el7.x86_64.tgz
# EL8: https://github.com/Vonng/pigsty/releases/download/v2.0.0/pigsty-pkg-v2.0.0.el8.x86_64.tgz


  • PostgreSQL 15.2, PostGIS 3.3, Citus 11.2, TimescaleDB 2.10 now works together and unite as one.
  • Now works on EL 7,8,9 for RHEL, CentOS, Rocky, AlmaLinux, and other EL compatible distributions
  • Security enhancement with self-signed CA, full SSL support, scram-sha-256 pwd encryption, and more.
  • Patroni 3.0 with native HA citus cluster support and dcs failsafe mode to prevent global DCS failures.
  • Auto-Configured, Battery-Included PITR for PostgreSQL powered by pgbackrest, local or S3/minio.
  • Dedicate module ETCD which can be easily deployed and scaled in/out. Used as DCS instead of Consul.
  • Dedicate module MINIO, local S3 alternative for the optional central backup repo for PGSQL PITR.
  • Better config templates with adaptive tuning for Node & PG according to your hardware spec.
  • Use AGPL v3.0 license instead of Apache 2.0 license due to Grafana & MinIO reference.


  • Pigsty now works on EL7, EL8, EL9, and offers corresponding pre-packed offline packages.
  • Pigsty now works on EL compatible distributions: RHEL, CentOS, Rocky, AlmaLinux, OracleLinux,…
  • Pigsty now use RockyLinux 9 as default developing & testing environment instead of CentOS 7
  • EL version, CPU arch, and pigsty version string are part of source & offline package names.
  • PGSQL: PostgreSQL 15.2 / PostGIS 3.3 / TimescaleDB 2.10 / Citus 11.2 now works together.
  • PGSQL: Patroni 3.0 is used as default HA solution for PGSQL, and etcd is used as default DCS.
    • Patroni 3.0 with DCS failsafe mode to prevent global DCS failures (demoting all primary)
    • Patroni 3.0 with native HA citus cluster support, with entirely open sourced v11 citus.
    • vip-manager 2.x with ETCDv3 API, ETCDv2 API is deprecated, so does patroni.
  • PGSQL: pgBackRest v2.44 is introduced to provide battery-include PITR for PGSQL.
    • it will use local backup FS on primary by default for a two-day retention policy
    • it will use S3/minio as an alternative central backup repo for a two-week retention policy
  • ETCD is used as default DCS instead of Consul, And V3 API is used instead of V2 API.
  • NODE module now consist of node itself, haproxy, docker, node_exporter, and promtail
    • chronyd is used as default NTP client instead of ntpd
    • HAPROXY now attach to NODE instead of PGSQL, which can be used for exposing services
    • You can register PG Service to dedicate haproxy clusters rather than local cluster nodes.
    • You can expose ad hoc service in a NodePort manner with haproxy, not limited to pg services.
  • INFRA now consist of dnsmasq, nginx, prometheus, grafana, loki
    • DNSMASQ is enabled on all infra nodes, and added to all nodes as the default resolver.
    • Add blackbox_exporter for ICMP probe, add pushgateway for batch job metrics.
    • Switch to official loki & promtail rpm packages. Use official Grafana Echarts Panel.
    • Add infra dashboards for self-monitoring, add patroni & pg15 metrics to monitoring system
  • Software Upgrade
    • PostgreSQL 15.2 / PostGIS 3.3 / TimescaleDB 2.10 / Citus 11.2
    • Patroni 3.0 / Pgbouncer 1.18 / pgBackRest 2.44 / vip-manager 2.1
    • HAProxy 2.7 / Etcd 3.5 / MinIO 20230222182345 / mcli 20230216192011
    • Prometheus 2.42 / Grafana 9.3 / Loki & Promtail 2.7 / Node Exporter 1.5


  • A full-featured self-signed CA enabled by default
  • Redact password in postgres logs.
  • SSL for Nginx (you have to trust the self-signed CA or use thisisunsafe to dismiss warning)
  • SSL for etcd peer/client traffics by @alemacci
  • SSL for postgres/pgbouncer/patroni by @alemacci
  • scram-sha-256 auth for postgres password encryption by @alemacci
  • Pgbouncer Auth Query by @alemacci
  • Use AES-256-CBC for pgbackrest encryption by @alemacci
  • Adding a security enhancement config template which enforce global SSL
  • Now all hba rules are defined in config inventory, no default rules.


  • Adaptive tuning template for PostgreSQL & Patroni by @Vonng, @alemacci
  • configurable log dir for Patroni & Postgres & Pgbouncer & Pgbackrest by @alemacci
  • Replace fixed ip placeholder with ${admin_ip} that can be referenced
  • Adaptive upstream repo definition that can be switched according EL ver, region & arch.
  • Terraform Templates for AWS CN & Aliyun, which can be used for sandbox IaaS provisioning
  • Vagrant Templates: meta, full, el7 el8, el9, build, minio, citus, etc…
  • New playbook pgsql-monitor.yml for monitoring existing pg instance or RDS PG.
  • New playbook pgsql-migration.yml for migrating existing pg instance to pigsty manged pg.
  • New shell utils under bin/ to simplify the daily administration tasks.
  • Optimize ansible role implementation. which can be used without default parameter values.
  • Now you can define pgbouncer parameters on database & user level

API Changes

69 parameters added, 16 parameters removed, rename 14 parameters

  • INFRA.META.admin_ip : primary meta node ip address
  • INFRA.META.region : upstream mirror region: default|china|europe
  • INFRA.META.os_version : enterprise linux release version: 7,8,9
  • INFRA.CA.ca_cn : ca common name, pigsty-ca by default
  • INFRA.CA.cert_validity : cert validity, 20 years by default
  • INFRA.REPO.repo_enabled : build a local yum repo on infra node?
  • INFRA.REPO.repo_upstream : list of upstream yum repo definition
  • INFRA.REPO.repo_home : home dir of local yum repo, usually same as nginx_home ‘/www’
  • INFRA.NGINX.nginx_ssl_port : https listen port
  • INFRA.NGINX.nginx_ssl_enabled : nginx https enabled?
  • INFRA.PROMTETHEUS.alertmanager_endpoint : altermanager endpoint in (ip|domain):port format
  • NODE.NODE_TUNE.node_hugepage_count : number of 2MB hugepage, take precedence over node_hugepage_ratio
  • NODE.NODE_TUNE.node_hugepage_ratio : mem hugepage ratio, 0 disable it by default
  • NODE.NODE_TUNE.node_overcommit_ratio : node mem overcommit ratio, 0 disable it by default
  • NODE.HAPROXY.haproxy_service : list of haproxy service to be exposed
  • PGSQL.PG_ID.pg_mode : pgsql cluster mode: pgsql,citus,gpsql
  • PGSQL.PG_BUSINESS.pg_dbsu_password : dbsu password, empty string means no dbsu password by default
  • PGSQL.PG_INSTALL.pg_log_dir : postgres log dir, /pg/data/log by default
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.pg_storage_type : SSD|HDD, SSD by default
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.patroni_log_dir : patroni log dir, /pg/log by default
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.patroni_ssl_enabled : secure patroni RestAPI communications with SSL?
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.patroni_username : patroni rest api username
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.patroni_password : patroni rest api password (IMPORTANT: CHANGE THIS)
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.patroni_citus_db : citus database managed by patroni, postgres by default
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.pg_max_conn : postgres max connections, auto will use recommended value
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.pg_shared_buffer_ratio : postgres shared buffer memory ratio, 0.25 by default, 0.1~0.4
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.pg_rto : recovery time objective, ttl to failover, 30s by default
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.pg_rpo : recovery point objective, 1MB data loss at most by default
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.pg_pwd_enc : algorithm for encrypting passwords: md5|scram-sha-256
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.pgbouncer_log_dir : pgbouncer log dir, /var/log/pgbouncer by default
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.pgbouncer_auth_query : if enabled, query pg_authid table to retrieve biz users instead of populating userlist
  • PGSQL.PG_BOOTSTRAP.pgbouncer_sslmode : SSL for pgbouncer client: disable|allow|prefer|require|verify-ca|verify-full
  • PGSQL.PG_BACKUP.pgbackrest_enabled : pgbackrest enabled?
  • PGSQL.PG_BACKUP.pgbackrest_clean : remove pgbackrest data during init ?
  • PGSQL.PG_BACKUP.pgbackrest_log_dir : pgbackrest log dir, /pg/log by default
  • PGSQL.PG_BACKUP.pgbackrest_method : pgbackrest backup repo method, local or minio
  • PGSQL.PG_BACKUP.pgbackrest_repo : pgbackrest backup repo config
  • PGSQL.PG_SERVICE.pg_service_provider : dedicate haproxy node group name, or empty string for local nodes by default
  • PGSQL.PG_SERVICE.pg_default_service_dest : default service destination if svc.dest=‘default’
  • PGSQL.PG_SERVICE.pg_vip_enabled : enable a l2 vip for pgsql primary? false by default
  • PGSQL.PG_SERVICE.pg_vip_address : vip address in <ipv4>/<mask> format, require if vip is enabled
  • PGSQL.PG_SERVICE.pg_vip_interface : vip network interface to listen, eth0 by default
  • PGSQL.PG_SERVICE.pg_dns_suffix : pgsql cluster dns name suffix, ’’ by default
  • PGSQL.PG_SERVICE.pg_dns_target : auto, primary, vip, none, or ad hoc ip
  • ETCD.etcd_seq : etcd instance identifier, REQUIRED
  • ETCD.etcd_cluster : etcd cluster & group name, etcd by default
  • ETCD.etcd_safeguard : prevent purging running etcd instance?
  • ETCD.etcd_clean : purging existing etcd during initialization?
  • ETCD.etcd_data : etcd data directory, /data/etcd by default
  • ETCD.etcd_port : etcd client port, 2379 by default
  • ETCD.etcd_peer_port : etcd peer port, 2380 by default
  • ETCD.etcd_init : etcd initial cluster state, new or existing
  • ETCD.etcd_election_timeout : etcd election timeout, 1000ms by default
  • ETCD.etcd_heartbeat_interval : etcd heartbeat interval, 100ms by default
  • MINIO.minio_seq : minio instance identifier, REQUIRED
  • MINIO.minio_cluster : minio cluster name, minio by default
  • MINIO.minio_clean : cleanup minio during init?, false by default
  • MINIO.minio_user : minio os user, minio by default
  • MINIO.minio_node : minio node name pattern
  • MINIO.minio_data : minio data dir(s), use {x…y} to specify multi drivers
  • MINIO.minio_domain : minio external domain name, sss.pigsty by default
  • MINIO.minio_port : minio service port, 9000 by default
  • MINIO.minio_admin_port : minio console port, 9001 by default
  • MINIO.minio_access_key : root access key, minioadmin by default
  • MINIO.minio_secret_key : root secret key, minioadmin by default
  • MINIO.minio_extra_vars : extra environment variables for minio server
  • MINIO.minio_alias : alias name for local minio deployment
  • MINIO.minio_buckets : list of minio bucket to be created
  • MINIO.minio_users : list of minio user to be created

Removed Parameters

  • INFRA.CA.ca_homedir: ca home dir, now fixed as /etc/pki/
  • INFRA.CA.ca_cert: ca cert filename, now fixed as ca.key
  • INFRA.CA.ca_key: ca key filename, now fixed as ca.key
  • INFRA.REPO.repo_upstreams: replaced by repo_upstream
  • PGSQL.PG_INSTALL.pgdg_repo: now taken care by node playbooks
  • PGSQL.PG_INSTALL.pg_add_repo: now taken care by node playbooks
  • PGSQL.PG_IDENTITY.pg_backup: not used and conflict with section name
  • PGSQL.PG_IDENTITY.pg_preflight_skip: not used anymore, replace by pg_id
  • DCS.dcs_name : removed due to using etcd
  • DCS.dcs_servers : replaced by using ad hoc group etcd
  • DCS.dcs_registry : removed due to using etcd
  • DCS.dcs_safeguard : replaced by etcd_safeguard
  • DCS.dcs_clean : replaced by etcd_clean
  • PGSQL.PG_VIP.vip_mode : replaced by pg_vip_enabled
  • PGSQL.PG_VIP.vip_address : replaced by pg_vip_address
  • PGSQL.PG_VIP.vip_interface : replaced by pg_vip_interface

Renamed Parameters

  • nginx_upstream -> infra_portal
  • repo_address -> repo_endpoint
  • pg_hostname -> node_id_from_pg
  • pg_sindex -> pg_group
  • pg_services -> pg_default_services
  • pg_services_extra -> pg_services
  • pg_hba_rules_extra -> pg_hba_rules
  • pg_hba_rules -> pg_default_hba_rules
  • pgbouncer_hba_rules_extra -> pgb_hba_rules
  • pgbouncer_hba_rules -> pgb_default_hba_rules
  • node_packages_default -> node_default_packages
  • node_packages_meta -> infra_packages
  • node_packages_meta_pip -> infra_packages_pip
  • node_data_dir -> node_data


MD5 (pigsty-pkg-v2.0.0.el7.x86_64.tgz) = 9ff3c973fa5915f65622b91419817c9b
MD5 (pigsty-pkg-v2.0.0.el8.x86_64.tgz) = bd108a6c8f026cb79ee62c3b68b72176
MD5 (pigsty-pkg-v2.0.0.el9.x86_64.tgz) = e24288770f240af0511b0c38fa2f4774

Special thanks to @alemacci for his great contribution!


Bug fix for v2.0.0 and security improvement.


  • Replace the pig shape logo for compliance with the PostgreSQL trademark policy.
  • Bump grafana version to v9.4 with better UI and bugfix.
  • Bump patroni version to v3.0.1 with some bugfix.
  • Change: rollback grafana systemd service file to rpm default.
  • Use slow copy instead of rsync to copy grafana dashboards.
  • Enhancement: add back default repo files after bootstrap
  • Add asciinema video for various administration tasks.
  • Security Enhance Mode: restrict monitor user privilege.
  • New config template: dual.yml for two-node deployment.
  • Enable log_connections and log_disconnections in crit.yml template.
  • Enable $lib/passwordcheck in pg_libs in crit.yml template.
  • Explicitly grant monitor view permission to pg_monitor role.
  • Remove default dbrole_readonly from dbuser_monitor to limit monitor user privilege
  • Now patroni listen on {{ inventory_hostname }} instead of
  • Now you can control postgres/pgbouncer listen to address with pg_listen
  • Now you can use placeholder ${ip}, ${lo}, ${vip} in pg_listen
  • Bump Aliyun terraform image to rocky Linux 9 instead of centos 7.9
  • Bump bytebase to v1.14.0

Bug Fixes

  • Add missing advertise address for alertmanager
  • Fix missing pg_mode error when adding postgres user with bin/pgsql-user
  • Add -a password to redis-join task @ redis.yml
  • Fix missing default value in infra-rm.yml.remove infra data
  • Fix prometheus targets file ownership to prometheus
  • Use admin user rather than root to delete metadata in DCS
  • Fix Meta datasource missing database name due to grafana 9.4 bug.


Official EL8 pgdg upstream is broken now, DO use it with caution!

Affected packages: postgis33_15, pgloader, postgresql_anonymizer_15*, postgresql_faker_15

How to Upgrade

cd ~/pigsty; tar -zcf /tmp/files.tgz files; rm -rf ~/pigsty    # backup files dir and remove
cd ~; bash -c "$(curl -fsSL https://get.pigsty.cc/latest)"    # get latest pigsty source
cd ~/pigsty; rm -rf files; tar -xf /tmp/files.tgz -C ~/pigsty  # restore files dir


MD5 (pigsty-pkg-v2.0.1.el7.x86_64.tgz) = 5cfbe98fd9706b9e0f15c1065971b3f6
MD5 (pigsty-pkg-v2.0.1.el8.x86_64.tgz) = c34aa460925ae7548866bf51b8b8759c
MD5 (pigsty-pkg-v2.0.1.el9.x86_64.tgz) = 055057cebd93c473a67fb63bcde22d33

Special thanks to @cocoonkid for his feedback.



Store OpenAI embedding and search similar vectors with pgvector


  • New extension pgvector for storing OpenAI embedding and searching similar vectors.
  • MinIO CVE-2023-28432 fix, and upgrade to 20230324 with new policy API.
  • Add reload functionality to DNSMASQ systemd services
  • Bump pev to v1.8
  • Bump grafana to v9.4.7
  • Bump MinIO and MCLI version to 20230324
  • Bump bytebase version to v1.15.0
  • Upgrade monitoring dashboards and fix dead links
  • Upgrade aliyun terraform template image to rockylinux 9
  • Adopt grafana provisioning API change since v9.4
  • Add asciinema videos for various administration tasks
  • Fix broken EL8 pgsql deps: remove anonymizer_15 faker_15 and pgloader
MD5 (pigsty-pkg-v2.0.2.el7.x86_64.tgz) = d46440a115d741386d29d6de646acfe2
MD5 (pigsty-pkg-v2.0.2.el8.x86_64.tgz) = 5fa268b5545ac96b40c444210157e1e1
MD5 (pigsty-pkg-v2.0.2.el9.x86_64.tgz) = c8b113d57c769ee86a22579fc98e8345
Last modified 2024-05-22: fix zh/blog/pg structure (45e9f86)