Infra as Code

Pigsty treat infra & database as code. Manage them in a declarative manner

Infra as Code, Database as Code, Declarative API & Idempotent Playbooks, GitOPS works like a charm.

Pigsty provides a declarative interface: Describe everything in a config file, and Pigsty operates it to the desired state with idempotent playbooks. It works like Kubernetes CRDs & Operators but for databases and infrastructures on any nodes: bare metal or virtual machines.

Declare Module

Take the default config snippet as an example, which describes a node with modules INFRA, NODE, ETCD, and PGSQL installed.

# infra cluster for proxy, monitor, alert, etc...
infra: { hosts: { { infra_seq: 1 } } }

# minio cluster, s3 compatible object storage
minio: { hosts: { { minio_seq: 1 } }, vars: { minio_cluster: minio } }

# etcd cluster for ha postgres DCS
etcd: { hosts: { { etcd_seq: 1 } }, vars: { etcd_cluster: etcd } }

# postgres example cluster: pg-meta
pg-meta: { hosts: { { pg_seq: 1, pg_role: primary }, vars: { pg_cluster: pg-meta } }

To materialize it, use the following playbooks:

./infra.yml -l infra    # init infra module on node
./etcd.yml  -l etcd     # init etcd  module on node
./minio.yml -l minio    # init minio module on node
./pgsql.yml -l pg-meta  # init pgsql module on node

Declare Cluster

You can declare the PGSQL module on multiple nodes, and form a cluster.

For example, to create a three-node HA cluster based on streaming replication, just adding the following definition to the all.children section of the config file pigsty.yml:

  hosts: { pg_seq: 1, pg_role: primary } { pg_seq: 2, pg_role: replica } { pg_seq: 3, pg_role: replica } # <-- add new instance
  vars: { pg_cluster: pg-test }

Then create the cluster with the pgsql.yml Playbook.

$ bin/pgsql-add  pg-test


You can deploy different kinds of instance roles such as primary, replica, offline, delayed, sync standby, and different kinds of clusters, such as standby clusters, Citus clusters, and even Redis / MinIO / Etcd clusters.

Declare Cluster Internal

Not only can you define clusters in a declarative manner, but you can also specify the databases, users, services, and HBA rules within the cluster. For example, the following configuration file deeply customizes the content of the default pg-meta single-node database cluster:

This includes declaring six business databases and seven business users, adding an additional standby service (a synchronous replica providing read capabilities with no replication delay), defining some extra pg_hba rules, an L2 VIP address pointing to the cluster’s primary database, and a customized backup strategy.

  hosts: { { pg_seq: 1, pg_role: primary , pg_offline_query: true } }
    pg_cluster: pg-meta
    pg_databases:                       # define business databases on this cluster, array of database definition
      - name: meta                      # REQUIRED, `name` is the only mandatory field of a database definition
        baseline: cmdb.sql              # optional, database sql baseline path, (relative path among ansible search path, e.g files/)
        pgbouncer: true                 # optional, add this database to pgbouncer database list? true by default
        schemas: [pigsty]               # optional, additional schemas to be created, array of schema names
        extensions:                     # optional, additional extensions to be installed: array of `{name[,schema]}`
          - { name: postgis , schema: public }
          - { name: timescaledb }
        comment: pigsty meta database   # optional, comment string for this database
        owner: postgres                # optional, database owner, postgres by default
        template: template1            # optional, which template to use, template1 by default
        encoding: UTF8                 # optional, database encoding, UTF8 by default. (MUST same as template database)
        locale: C                      # optional, database locale, C by default.  (MUST same as template database)
        lc_collate: C                  # optional, database collate, C by default. (MUST same as template database)
        lc_ctype: C                    # optional, database ctype, C by default.   (MUST same as template database)
        tablespace: pg_default         # optional, default tablespace, 'pg_default' by default.
        allowconn: true                # optional, allow connection, true by default. false will disable connect at all
        revokeconn: false              # optional, revoke public connection privilege. false by default. (leave connect with grant option to owner)
        register_datasource: true      # optional, register this database to grafana datasources? true by default
        connlimit: -1                  # optional, database connection limit, default -1 disable limit
        pool_auth_user: dbuser_meta    # optional, all connection to this pgbouncer database will be authenticated by this user
        pool_mode: transaction         # optional, pgbouncer pool mode at database level, default transaction
        pool_size: 64                  # optional, pgbouncer pool size at database level, default 64
        pool_size_reserve: 32          # optional, pgbouncer pool size reserve at database level, default 32
        pool_size_min: 0               # optional, pgbouncer pool size min at database level, default 0
        pool_max_db_conn: 100          # optional, max database connections at database level, default 100
      - { name: grafana  ,owner: dbuser_grafana  ,revokeconn: true ,comment: grafana primary database }
      - { name: bytebase ,owner: dbuser_bytebase ,revokeconn: true ,comment: bytebase primary database }
      - { name: kong     ,owner: dbuser_kong     ,revokeconn: true ,comment: kong the api gateway database }
      - { name: gitea    ,owner: dbuser_gitea    ,revokeconn: true ,comment: gitea meta database }
      - { name: wiki     ,owner: dbuser_wiki     ,revokeconn: true ,comment: wiki meta database }
    pg_users:                           # define business users/roles on this cluster, array of user definition
      - name: dbuser_meta               # REQUIRED, `name` is the only mandatory field of a user definition
        password: DBUser.Meta           # optional, password, can be a scram-sha-256 hash string or plain text
        login: true                     # optional, can log in, true by default  (new biz ROLE should be false)
        superuser: false                # optional, is superuser? false by default
        createdb: false                 # optional, can create database? false by default
        createrole: false               # optional, can create role? false by default
        inherit: true                   # optional, can this role use inherited privileges? true by default
        replication: false              # optional, can this role do replication? false by default
        bypassrls: false                # optional, can this role bypass row level security? false by default
        pgbouncer: true                 # optional, add this user to pgbouncer user-list? false by default (production user should be true explicitly)
        connlimit: -1                   # optional, user connection limit, default -1 disable limit
        expire_in: 3650                 # optional, now + n days when this role is expired (OVERWRITE expire_at)
        expire_at: '2030-12-31'         # optional, YYYY-MM-DD 'timestamp' when this role is expired  (OVERWRITTEN by expire_in)
        comment: pigsty admin user      # optional, comment string for this user/role
        roles: [dbrole_admin]           # optional, belonged roles. default roles are: dbrole_{admin,readonly,readwrite,offline}
        parameters: {}                  # optional, role level parameters with `ALTER ROLE SET`
        pool_mode: transaction          # optional, pgbouncer pool mode at user level, transaction by default
        pool_connlimit: -1              # optional, max database connections at user level, default -1 disable limit
      - {name: dbuser_view     ,password: DBUser.Viewer   ,pgbouncer: true ,roles: [dbrole_readonly], comment: read-only viewer for meta database}
      - {name: dbuser_grafana  ,password: DBUser.Grafana  ,pgbouncer: true ,roles: [dbrole_admin]    ,comment: admin user for grafana database   }
      - {name: dbuser_bytebase ,password: DBUser.Bytebase ,pgbouncer: true ,roles: [dbrole_admin]    ,comment: admin user for bytebase database  }
      - {name: dbuser_kong     ,password: DBUser.Kong     ,pgbouncer: true ,roles: [dbrole_admin]    ,comment: admin user for kong api gateway   }
      - {name: dbuser_gitea    ,password: DBUser.Gitea    ,pgbouncer: true ,roles: [dbrole_admin]    ,comment: admin user for gitea service      }
      - {name: dbuser_wiki     ,password: DBUser.Wiki     ,pgbouncer: true ,roles: [dbrole_admin]    ,comment: admin user for wiki.js service    }
    pg_services:                        # extra services in addition to pg_default_services, array of service definition
      # standby service will route {ip|name}:5435 to sync replica's pgbouncer (5435->6432 standby)
      - name: standby                   # required, service name, the actual svc name will be prefixed with `pg_cluster`, e.g: pg-meta-standby
        port: 5435                      # required, service exposed port (work as kubernetes service node port mode)
        ip: "*"                         # optional, service bind ip address, `*` for all ip by default
        selector: "[]"                  # required, service member selector, use JMESPath to filter inventory
        dest: default                   # optional, destination port, default|postgres|pgbouncer|<port_number>, 'default' by default
        check: /sync                    # optional, health check url path, / by default
        backup: "[? pg_role == `primary`]"  # backup server selector
        maxconn: 3000                   # optional, max allowed front-end connection
        balance: roundrobin             # optional, haproxy load balance algorithm (roundrobin by default, other: leastconn)
        options: 'inter 3s fastinter 1s downinter 5s rise 3 fall 3 on-marked-down shutdown-sessions slowstart 30s maxconn 3000 maxqueue 128 weight 100'
      - {user: dbuser_view , db: all ,addr: infra ,auth: pwd ,title: 'allow grafana dashboard access cmdb from infra nodes'}
    pg_vip_enabled: true
    pg_vip_interface: eth1
    node_crontab:  # make a full backup 1 am everyday
      - '00 01 * * * postgres /pg/bin/pg-backup full'

Declare Access Control

You can also deeply customize Pigsty’s access control capabilities through declarative configuration. For example, the following configuration file provides deep security customization for the pg-meta cluster:

  • Utilizes a three-node core cluster template: crit.yml, to ensure data consistency is prioritized, with zero data loss during failover.
  • Enables L2 VIP, and restricts the database and connection pool listening addresses to three specific addresses: local loopback IP, internal network IP, and VIP.
  • The template mandatorily enables SSL API for Patroni and SSL for Pgbouncer, and in the HBA rules, it enforces SSL usage for accessing the database cluster.
  • Additionally, the $libdir/passwordcheck extension is enabled in pg_libs to enforce a password strength security policy.

Lastly, a separate pg-meta-delay cluster is declared as a delayed replica of pg-meta from one hour ago, for use in emergency data deletion recovery.

pg-meta:      # 3 instance postgres cluster `pg-meta`
  hosts: { pg_seq: 1, pg_role: primary } { pg_seq: 2, pg_role: replica } { pg_seq: 3, pg_role: replica , pg_offline_query: true }
    pg_cluster: pg-meta
    pg_conf: crit.yml
      - { name: dbuser_meta , password: DBUser.Meta   , pgbouncer: true , roles: [ dbrole_admin ] , comment: pigsty admin user }
      - { name: dbuser_view , password: DBUser.Viewer , pgbouncer: true , roles: [ dbrole_readonly ] , comment: read-only viewer for meta database }
      - {name: meta ,baseline: cmdb.sql ,comment: pigsty meta database ,schemas: [pigsty] ,extensions: [{name: postgis, schema: public}, {name: timescaledb}]}
    pg_default_service_dest: postgres
      - { name: standby ,src_ip: "*" ,port: 5435 , dest: default ,selector: "[]" , backup: "[? pg_role == `primary`]" }
    pg_vip_enabled: true
    pg_vip_interface: eth1
    pg_listen: '${ip},${vip},${lo}'
    patroni_ssl_enabled: true
    pgbouncer_sslmode: require
    pgbackrest_method: minio
    pg_libs: 'timescaledb, $libdir/passwordcheck, pg_stat_statements, auto_explain' # add passwordcheck extension to enforce strong password
    pg_default_roles:                 # default roles and users in postgres cluster
      - { name: dbrole_readonly  ,login: false ,comment: role for global read-only access     }
      - { name: dbrole_offline   ,login: false ,comment: role for restricted read-only access }
      - { name: dbrole_readwrite ,login: false ,roles: [dbrole_readonly]               ,comment: role for global read-write access }
      - { name: dbrole_admin     ,login: false ,roles: [pg_monitor, dbrole_readwrite]  ,comment: role for object creation }
      - { name: postgres     ,superuser: true  ,expire_in: 7300                        ,comment: system superuser }
      - { name: replicator ,replication: true  ,expire_in: 7300 ,roles: [pg_monitor, dbrole_readonly]   ,comment: system replicator }
      - { name: dbuser_dba   ,superuser: true  ,expire_in: 7300 ,roles: [dbrole_admin]  ,pgbouncer: true ,pool_mode: session, pool_connlimit: 16 , comment: pgsql admin user }
      - { name: dbuser_monitor ,roles: [pg_monitor] ,expire_in: 7300 ,pgbouncer: true ,parameters: {log_min_duration_statement: 1000 } ,pool_mode: session ,pool_connlimit: 8 ,comment: pgsql monitor user }
    pg_default_hba_rules:             # postgres host-based auth rules by default
      - {user: '${dbsu}'    ,db: all         ,addr: local     ,auth: ident ,title: 'dbsu access via local os user ident'  }
      - {user: '${dbsu}'    ,db: replication ,addr: local     ,auth: ident ,title: 'dbsu replication from local os ident' }
      - {user: '${repl}'    ,db: replication ,addr: localhost ,auth: ssl   ,title: 'replicator replication from localhost'}
      - {user: '${repl}'    ,db: replication ,addr: intra     ,auth: ssl   ,title: 'replicator replication from intranet' }
      - {user: '${repl}'    ,db: postgres    ,addr: intra     ,auth: ssl   ,title: 'replicator postgres db from intranet' }
      - {user: '${monitor}' ,db: all         ,addr: localhost ,auth: pwd   ,title: 'monitor from localhost with password' }
      - {user: '${monitor}' ,db: all         ,addr: infra     ,auth: ssl   ,title: 'monitor from infra host with password'}
      - {user: '${admin}'   ,db: all         ,addr: infra     ,auth: ssl   ,title: 'admin @ infra nodes with pwd & ssl'   }
      - {user: '${admin}'   ,db: all         ,addr: world     ,auth: cert  ,title: 'admin @ everywhere with ssl & cert'   }
      - {user: '+dbrole_readonly',db: all    ,addr: localhost ,auth: ssl   ,title: 'pgbouncer read/write via local socket'}
      - {user: '+dbrole_readonly',db: all    ,addr: intra     ,auth: ssl   ,title: 'read/write biz user via password'     }
      - {user: '+dbrole_offline' ,db: all    ,addr: intra     ,auth: ssl   ,title: 'allow etl offline tasks from intranet'}
    pgb_default_hba_rules:            # pgbouncer host-based authentication rules
      - {user: '${dbsu}'    ,db: pgbouncer   ,addr: local     ,auth: peer  ,title: 'dbsu local admin access with os ident'}
      - {user: 'all'        ,db: all         ,addr: localhost ,auth: pwd   ,title: 'allow all user local access with pwd' }
      - {user: '${monitor}' ,db: pgbouncer   ,addr: intra     ,auth: ssl   ,title: 'monitor access via intranet with pwd' }
      - {user: '${monitor}' ,db: all         ,addr: world     ,auth: deny  ,title: 'reject all other monitor access addr' }
      - {user: '${admin}'   ,db: all         ,addr: intra     ,auth: ssl   ,title: 'admin access via intranet with pwd'   }
      - {user: '${admin}'   ,db: all         ,addr: world     ,auth: deny  ,title: 'reject all other admin access addr'   }
      - {user: 'all'        ,db: all         ,addr: intra     ,auth: ssl   ,title: 'allow all user intra access with pwd' }

# OPTIONAL delayed cluster for pg-meta
pg-meta-delay:                    # delayed instance for pg-meta (1 hour ago)
  hosts: { { pg_seq: 1, pg_role: primary, pg_upstream:, pg_delay: 1h } }
  vars: { pg_cluster: pg-meta-delay }

Citus Distributive Cluster

Example: Citus Distributed Cluster: 5 Nodes
    pg-citus0: # citus coordinator, pg_group = 0
      hosts: { { pg_seq: 1, pg_role: primary } }
      vars: { pg_cluster: pg-citus0 , pg_group: 0 }
    pg-citus1: # citus data node 1
      hosts: { { pg_seq: 1, pg_role: primary } }
      vars: { pg_cluster: pg-citus1 , pg_group: 1 }
    pg-citus2: # citus data node 2
      hosts: { { pg_seq: 1, pg_role: primary } }
      vars: { pg_cluster: pg-citus2 , pg_group: 2 }
    pg-citus3: # citus data node 3, with an extra replica
      hosts: { pg_seq: 1, pg_role: primary } { pg_seq: 2, pg_role: replica }
      vars: { pg_cluster: pg-citus3 , pg_group: 3 }
  vars:                               # global parameters for all citus clusters
    pg_mode: citus                    # pgsql cluster mode: citus
    pg_shard: pg-citus                # citus shard name: pg-citus
    patroni_citus_db: meta            # citus distributed database name
    pg_dbsu_password: DBUser.Postgres # all dbsu password access for citus cluster
    pg_libs: 'citus, timescaledb, pg_stat_statements, auto_explain' # citus will be added by patroni automatically
      - postgis34_${ pg_version }* timescaledb-2-postgresql-${ pg_version }* pgvector_${ pg_version }* citus_${ pg_version }*
    pg_users: [ { name: dbuser_meta ,password: DBUser.Meta ,pgbouncer: true ,roles: [ dbrole_admin ] } ]
    pg_databases: [ { name: meta ,extensions: [ { name: citus }, { name: postgis }, { name: timescaledb } ] } ]
      - { user: 'all' ,db: all  ,addr: ,auth: ssl ,title: 'all user ssl access from localhost' }
      - { user: 'all' ,db: all  ,addr: intra        ,auth: ssl ,title: 'all user ssl access from intranet'  }

Redis Clusters

Example: Redis Cluster/Sentinel/Standalone
redis-ms: # redis classic primary & replica
  hosts: { { redis_node: 1 , redis_instances: { 6379: { }, 6380: { replica_of: ' 6379' } } } }
  vars: { redis_cluster: redis-ms ,redis_password: '' ,redis_max_memory: 64MB }

redis-meta: # redis sentinel x 3
  hosts: { { redis_node: 1 , redis_instances: { 26379: { } ,26380: { } ,26381: { } } } }
    redis_cluster: redis-meta
    redis_password: 'redis.meta'
    redis_mode: sentinel
    redis_max_memory: 16MB
    redis_sentinel_monitor: # primary list for redis sentinel, use cls as name, primary ip:port
      - { name: redis-ms, host:, port: 6379 ,password:, quorum: 2 }

redis-test: # redis native cluster: 3m x 3s
  hosts: { redis_node: 1 ,redis_instances: { 6379: { } ,6380: { } ,6381: { } } } { redis_node: 2 ,redis_instances: { 6379: { } ,6380: { } ,6381: { } } }
  vars: { redis_cluster: redis-test ,redis_password: 'redis.test' ,redis_mode: cluster, redis_max_memory: 32MB }

Etcd Cluster

Example: ETCD 3 Node Cluster
etcd: # dcs service for postgres/patroni ha consensus
  hosts:  # 1 node for testing, 3 or 5 for production { etcd_seq: 1 }  # etcd_seq required { etcd_seq: 2 }  # assign from 1 ~ n { etcd_seq: 3 }  # odd number please
  vars: # cluster level parameter override roles/etcd
    etcd_cluster: etcd  # mark etcd cluster name etcd
    etcd_safeguard: false # safeguard against purging
    etcd_clean: true # purge etcd during init process

MinIO Cluster

Example: Minio 3 Node Deployment
  hosts: { minio_seq: 1 } { minio_seq: 2 } { minio_seq: 3 }
    minio_cluster: minio
    minio_data: '/data{1...2}'        # use two disk per node
    minio_node: '${minio_cluster}-${minio_seq}.pigsty' # minio node name pattern
      - name: minio                     # [REQUIRED] service name, unique
        port: 9002                      # [REQUIRED] service port, unique
          - option httpchk
          - option http-keep-alive
          - http-check send meth OPTIONS uri /minio/health/live
          - http-check expect status 200
          - { name: minio-1 ,ip: , port: 9000 , options: 'check-ssl ca-file /etc/pki/ca.crt check port 9000' }
          - { name: minio-2 ,ip: , port: 9000 , options: 'check-ssl ca-file /etc/pki/ca.crt check port 9000' }
          - { name: minio-3 ,ip: , port: 9000 , options: 'check-ssl ca-file /etc/pki/ca.crt check port 9000' }

Last modified 2024-03-07: add ca / iac in en/docs (4720967)